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  • Abstract
    isoniazid preventive therapy IPT for children exposed to TB at home and the present study evaluates the effect of this intervention on mortality SETTING This prospective cohort study was conducted in six suburban areas included in the demographic surveillance system of the Bandim Health Project in Bissau the capital city of Guinea Bissau PARTICIPANTS All children less than 5 years of age and living in the same house as an adult with intrathoracic TB registered for treatment in the study area between 2005 and 2007 were evaluated for inclusion in the IPT programme MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES END POINTS The all cause mortality rate ratio MRR between exposed children on IPT exposed without IPT and unexposed community control children RESULTS A total of 1396 children were identified as living in the same houses as 416 adult TB cases of those 691 were enrolled in the IPT programme Compared with community controls the IPT children had an MRR of 0 30 95 CI 0 1 to 1 2 The MRR comparing exposed children with and without IPT was 0 21 0 0 to 1 1 The relative mortality in IPT children compared with community controls in 2005 2008 differed significantly from the

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Gomes-et-al-2013.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    months of age BMC Pediatr 2013 Nov 19 13 1 190 Epub ahead of print BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends high dose vitamin A supplementation VAS for children above six months of age in low income countries VAS has been associated with up regulation of the Th2 response We aimed to determine if VAS is associated with atopy in childhood METHODS Infants in Guinea Bissau were randomly allocated VAS or placebo either at six and nine months of age or only at nine months of age At six months of age children were furthermore randomized to measles vaccine or inactivated polio vaccine At nine months of age all children received measles vaccine Children were revisited seven years later and skin prick testing was performed Atopy was defined as a skin prick reaction 3 mm RESULTS 40 of 263 children 15 were atopic Overall VAS had no significant effect on the risk of atopy Prevalence Ratio 1 23 95 CI 0 69 2 18 The Prevalence Ratio was 1 60 0 66 3 90 for males and 1 00 0 46 2 15 for females CONCLUSIONS There was no significant effect of VAS in infancy on atopy later in childhood

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Kiraly-et-al-2013.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    whether neonatal BCG vaccination vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood METHODS In Guinea Bissau low birthweight infants were randomized to early intervention or delayed usual policy BCG A subgroup was also randomly assigned vitamin A supplementation or placebo in a two by two factorial design Participants were followed up at age 3 9 years The main outcome was atopy defined as skin prick test reaction 3 mm Secondary outcomes were symptoms of eczema asthma and food allergy RESULTS Two hundred eighty one children had valid skin prick tests performed and 14 39 281 were atopic There was no significant difference in atopy between the early and delayed BCG groups OR 0 71 95 CI 0 34 1 47 Atopy was significantly reduced in children who had responded to BCG with a scar OR 0 42 0 19 0 94 Vitamin A supplementation was associated with increased atopy OR 2 88 1 26 6 58 especially in those who received simultaneous BCG 5 99 1 99 18 1 P 0 09 for interaction between vitamin A supplementation and BCG Early vs delayed BCG was not associated with symptoms of atopic disease but vitamin A supplementation increased odds

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Kiraly%20N.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    Immun 2013 Oct 30 Epub ahead of print We have recently shown that BCG Bacillus Calmette Guérin vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination This phenomenon was named trained immunity In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 Th1 and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination The production of TNFα and IL 1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months postvaccination but these effects were less pronounced 1 year after vaccination However monocytes recovered 1 year after vaccination had an increased expression of pattern recognition receptors such as CD14 Toll like receptor 4 TLR4 and mannose receptor and this correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide The heterologous production of Th1 IFN γ and Th17 IL 17 and IL 22 immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination In conclusion BCG induces sustained changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Kleinnijenhuis-et-al.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    examined antibody responses in both one dose and two dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months SETTING AND METHODS The trial was conducted in an urban area in Guinea Bissau where we have had a health and demographic surveillance system and studied strategies to prevent measles infection since 1978 In the present study children were randomised to SW or EZ as the first MV and furthermore randomised to a second dose of the same MV or no vaccine at 18 months of age We obtained blood samples from 996 children at baseline post vaccination blood samples were collected at 18 and 24 months of age to assess measles antibody levels after one or two doses of MV RESULTS At age 18 months all had responded to the first dose and only 1 8 699 of the children had non protective antibody levels irrespective of vaccine type SW was associated with significantly higher levels of measles antibodies geometric mean titre GMT 2114mIU mL 95 CI 1153 2412 than EZ GMT 807mIU mL 722 908 p 0 001 Antibody concentration was significantly higher in girls than in boys after EZ but not after SW Antibody levels were higher

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Martins%20C.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    August 31 2008 Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria tetanus pertussis polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b DTaP IPV Hib administered at ages 3 5 and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incidence rate ratios IRRs of hospital admissions for any infection comparing receipt of MMR vs DTaP IPV Hib as the most recent vaccine Risks risk difference and number needed to vaccinate were calculated for receiving MMR on time RESULTS The study included 495 987 children contributing with 56 889 hospital admissions for any type of infection during 509 427 person years rate 11 2 per 100 person years For the 456 043 children who followed the recommended schedule and received MMR after the third dose of DTaP IPV Hib MMR rate 8 9 per 100 person years vs the third dose of DTaP IPV Hib rate 12 4 per 100 person years as the most recent vaccine was associated with an adjusted IRR of 0 86 95 CI 0 84 0 88 for any admission for infection There were 19 219 children immunized out of sequence The adjusted IRR was 0 87 95 CI 0 80 0 95 for those receiving MMR rate 9 9 per 100 person years after the second dose of DTaP IPV Hib rate 15 1 per 100 person years However in the 1981 children who subsequently received the third dose of DTaP IPV Hib rate 12 8 per 100 person years after MMR the IRR for hospital admissions for infection was significantly greater adjusted IRR 1 62 95 CI 1 28 2 05 The risk of admission for an infection between ages 16 months and 24 months was 4 6 95 CI 4 5

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Soerup%202014.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    were gradually phased out in Denmark for children born between 1965 and 1976 hence allowing the study of subsequent risk of Crohn s disease and ulcerative colitis in a unique prospective design Methods The Copenhagen School Health Records Register contains detailed documentation of vaccination Among the background cohort of individuals born between 1965 and 1976 N 47 622 cases with Crohn s disease n 218 and ulcerative colitis n 256 were identified through linkage to the Danish National Patient Registry The vaccination status of the cases was compared with that of a subcohort n 5741 of the background cohort and analyzed in a case cohort design Results No difference in risk of IBD was observed between individuals vaccinated and unvaccinated with BCG hazard ratio 0 95 95 confidence interval 0 75 1 19 or smallpox vaccine hazard ratio 1 01 95 confidence interval 0 77 1 32 This was also the case for Crohn s disease and ulcerative colitis separately However BCG given before 4 months of age may decrease the risk of IBD hazard ratio 0 43 95 confidence interval 0 20 0 93 Conclusions This prospective long term case cohort study shows that BCG and smallpox vaccination do

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Villumsen%20et%20al%202013.aspx (2016-04-30)
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  • Abstract
    pertussis DTP is associated with excess female mortality due to infectious diseases Methods To investigate possible changes in gene expression after DTP vaccination we identified a group of nine comparable West African girls from a biobank of 356 children who were due to receive DTP booster vaccine at age 18 months As a pilot experiment we extracted RNA from blood samples before and 6 weeks after vaccination to analyze the coding transcriptome in leukocytes using expression microarrays and ended up with information from eight girls The data was further analyzed using dedicated array pathway and network software We aimed to study whether DTP vaccination introduced a systematic alteration in the immune system in girls Results We found very few transcripts to alter systematically Those that did mainly belonged to the Interferon IFN signalling pathway We scrutinized this pathway as well as the Interleukin IL pathways Two out of eight showed a down regulated IFN pathway and two showed an up regulated IFN pathway The two with down regulated IFN pathway had also down regulated IL 6 pathway In the study of networks two of the girls stood out as not having the inflammatory response as top altered network Conclusion The

    Original URL path: http://cviva.dk/Publications/Oerntoft-et-al-2013.aspx (2016-04-30)
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